Although there has been some progress in forming a national unity government in Libya, “unity” is a rather inapplicable word for the country. In reality, friction between various political actors remains high. Ultimately, perhaps a form of disunity—confederation, rather than centralization—is the best model for Libya.
Libyan politics: A primer
During the summer of 2014, the Libyan leadership, after an initial hint of cooperation, split into two governments:
- One, headquartered in Tobruk and based on a secular matrix, was recognized internationally. It received support from the House of Representatives and was abetted by General Khalifa Haftar and his so-called National Libyan Army. Externally, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, and Russia have supported this government because of its anti-Islamist ideology. In May 2014, Haftar launched “Operation Dignity” against the Islamist militias, supported by the Zintan brigades (consisting of the Civic, al-Sawaiq, and al-Qaaqa brigades), and the militias coming from the ethnic minorities of Tebu and Fezzan.
- The other, headquartered in Tripoli, was Islamic in nature. It was supported by the new General National Congress (GNC) and was part of the Libya Dawn group of pro-Islamist militias (which included groups from Misrata, Amazigh, and Tuareg). Qatar, Sudan, and Turkey have supported this government for different reasons, including to earn a more prominent place on the global stage or to support the Muslim Brotherhood.
But it gets more complicated, since it wasn’t just the Tobruk- and Tripoli-based governments that competed to fill the power vacuum post-Gadhafi. The constellation of militias and brigades has changed continuously. There are Salafist groups such as:
- Ansar al-Sharia Libya (or ASL, located between Benghazi and Derna);
- Muhammad Jamal Network (between Benghazi and Derna);
- Al-Murabitun (in the southeast, around Ghat, Ubari, Tasawah, and Murzuq);
- Al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb (or AQIM, in the southwest and northeast of Libya); and
- Ansar al-Sharia Tunisia (or AST, located between Derna and Ajdabiya). Read more… 
| July 6, 2016 http://www.brookings.edu/